Theory Publications

Selected articles of V.M. Bakhir

Monograph by V.M. Bakhir "Electrochemical activation: inventions, technology, technology" is the most complete modern publication from the founder of the technology of electrochemical activation and reflects the history of electrochemical activation, theoretical foundations, as well as an interesting and detailed description of the application technologies of electrochemically activated solutions and electrochemical devices in medicine, industry, agriculture economy, in everyday life.

Special collections of author's articles on STEL, AQUACHLOR and other devices or technologies of ECA application allow you to follow the development of electrochemical activation technology and to study its use in more depth in your field of activity.

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  • Electrochemical Activation: a key to ecologically pure technologies of water treatment
    Possibility of reagentless directing of water and water solution properties in different technological processes was discovered in the seventies of last century. Now it is realized in thousands various electrochemical systems from domestic devices for production of “superreducing” or “superoxidized” (so called “live” and “dead”) water to industrial devices which work at different places in many countries and produce electrochemically activated disinfecting, sterilizing, detergent, extractive, emulsifying, demulsifying, stabilizing, preserving, bleaching, medicinal and other solutions. This variety of technological properties of solutions can be explained by unique combination of the pronounced oxidizing, reducing, catalytic, biocatalityc activity of electrochemicall activated solutions with disproportionately low concentration of active reagents, that fundamentally distinguishes activated solutions from traditional solutions of appropriate chemical reagents. Historically existing priority of Russia in this not young but highly upcoming scientific and technical direction of applied electrochemistry keep high due to the work of scientists and specialists, whose efforts till 2005 were joined with informal scientific and technical contacts and from 2005 - under scientific and informational structure of Vitold Bakhir Electrochemical Systems and Technologies Institute.  
  • Control of microbes in water treatment and medicine: two sides of the same problem
    Let us analyze whether the technologies extensively proposed in Russia at present are really innovative. Such analysis seems to be of current concern, since, possibly, it can help in the future to prevent regret due to new false strategic decisions. The modern Russian special journals are overfilled with information on what reagents and technologies for water decontamination to be used alone or in combination are better: chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, ozone, ultraviolet irradiation, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and then dozens of alternative technologies.  
  • Electrochemical Activation of Water and Aqueous Solutions: Past , Present and Future
    Research into the problems of electrochemical activation started in 1972 with the investigations of engineer V. M. Bakhir in the Tashkent Scientific Research Institute of Natural Gas of the USSR Ministry of Gas Industry (SredAzNIIGaz). Following the initial successful testing of electrochemical methods of controlling drilling mud and water properties in technological processes of oil and gas well drilling, V.M.Bakhir and engineer Yu.G.Zadorozhny designed laboratory and commercial devices for electrochemical anodic and cathodic (unipolar) treatment of water and aqueous solutions. In 1973-1981, a team of researchers from SredAzNIIGaz headed by V.M.Bakhir received over 200 Author's Certificates for inventions in the field of electrochemical activation ( the term "electrochemical activation" was offered by V. M. Bakhir in 1975 after establishing the fact of relaxation changes of parameters of diluted solutions, following unipolar electrochemical exposure).  
  • STEL: history and new prospects
    The name “STEL” was assigned to all the types of electrochemical plants which produce electrochemically activated washing, disinfecting and sterilizing solutions (ECA-solutions) and include electrochemical reactor made of FEM-3 flow electrochemical modular elements as one of the units of their construction.
  • Disinfection of drinking water: problems and solutions
    The basic criteria of quality of drinking water which were formulated in middle of the twentieth century, consist of the following: drinking water should be safe in epidemic relation, it should be harmless in it’s chemical structure and have favorable organoleptic properties. Nowadays these criteria are applied all over the world. В настоящее время эти критерии приняты во всем мире.
  • Ways to improve the efficiency and quality of processes of preparing oil for refining using electrochemically activated water
    A compulsory step of preparing oil for refining procedure is dewatering and demineralization, i.e. removal from it of water, mineral salts and mechanical admixtures, since they may negatively affect the work of oil-refining factories (ORF)
  • ELSOR Process to Extract Hydrogen Sulfide from Natural Gas
    The main principle of ELSOR process is the absorption of hydrogen sulfide from gas by alkali produced in the electrochemical reactor from a sodium sulfate aqueous solution and subsequent regeneration of the hydrogen sulfide-saturated absorbent with acid produced by the same electrochemical reactor.
  • Application of ECA solutions and enzyme preparations for hop extraction
    Today, because of intense competition on the Russian brewing market, many enterprises search for ways to reduce unit costs. A possible way to solve the problem is to lower the cost of hop and end-products of its processing.
  • Effect of electrochemically activated systems on malt enzymes
    Over 20 years have passed since the time when the electrochemical activation effect (ECA) was discovered. Water and weak saline solutions subjected to treatment in the anodic or cathodic chambers of a diaphragm-type electrolyzer convert into a meta-stable state, which is different from a stable one in that they have anomalous values of physical and chemical parameters, for instance, those of рН and oxidative-reductive potential (ORP).
  • Application of ANK anolyte in cases of intestinal infection
    Among infectious diseases in young agricultural animals causing the highest economic damage, the intestinal infections take the leading place.
  • Electrochemically activated solutions in veterinary practice
    Unipolar electrochemical activation (ECA) of liquids is based on well-known electrolysis reactions. But the final result of electrolysis of concentrated solutions is pure ready-to-use product, while electrochemically activated are weak (up to 5 g/l) aqueous salt solutions or common drinking water, which contains up to 1 g/l of different salts.
  • Issues of chemical composition and operating properties of chlorine based inorganic liquid chemical germicides
    More then hundred years chlorine-based inorganic compounds have been used as chemical germicides as well as consistent investigations of influence of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorites on human and environment have been going on.
  • Prevention and therapy of nosocominal infections using electrochemically activated solutions
    The Priorov Central Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics of MZ RF, Moscow Medical and Stomatological University of MZ RF, VNIIIMT MZ RF.
  • Disinfecting Military Hospital Surgery Unit with neutral anolyte
    IN TODAY’S health care, a burning issue is prevention of nosocomial infections affecting 20-30% of patients depending on the type of medical facility department and accounting system
  • Disinfection of air-conditioners with anolyte solution
    The disinfection effect of anolyte was investigated by means of irrigating the internal surfaces of air- conditioners. The disinfectant was found to be highly efficient in its action on microorganisms including spore-forming bacteria. The conclusion about expediency of anolyte application to disinfect household air-conditioners without coal filters was made..
  • Application of electrochemically activated solutions in the trauma and orthopedic clinic
    For several years, CITO clinical departments and laboratories have been using electrochemically activated solutions for disinfection and sterilization. These solutions are synthesized by the device STEL-10H-120-1 (catalytic neutral anolyte). The results obtained are promising for the prevention of nosocomial infections. Practically, no other disinfectants are used at the hospital.
  • Economic prerequisites for applying in health institutions STEL electrochemical devices for synthesis of washing, disinfectant and sterilizing solution
    A tendency towards higher incidence of communicable diseases in Russia observed in the early 1990s is still here today.
  • Ways of creating effective and safe antimicrobial liquid agents and evolution of public perception of disinfection measures
    Discussed in the article are the questions of a choice of liquid antimicrobial preparations. Theoretically, ANK anolyte has advantages over stable organic disinfectants.
  • Efficacy and Safety of Liquid Chemical Germicides Applied for All-levels Disinfection (Sterilization), Pre-sterilizing Treatment.
    Nowadays a range of disinfectants is essentially increased. There are over four hundred biocidal agents for pre-sterilizing treatment, sanitation and all-levels disinfection used in Russia.
  • Evolution of technical systems for electrochemical activation of liquids
    The article describes technical systems for electrochemical activation of liquids created by the authors, which are presented in chronological order according to the inventions’ priority.
  • Electrochemical Activation: a New Trend in Applied Electrochemistry
    Background. In 1802, 30 years before M. Faraday discovered the electrolysis laws, Russian academician V. V. Petrov discovered, through using a high-voltage galvanic battery he had developed, that emission of electrolysis gases near the electrodes is accompanied by acidification of water near the anode and alkalization of water near the cathode.