Terms, definitions, notation conventions
Substance in metastable state (activated substance)
A substance in a metastable state (activated substance) – generally, a substance that due to prior thermodynamically non-equilibrium exposure for some time maintains excessive inner potential energy at temperature equal to the environment temperature. For water and diluted aqueous solutions of electrolytes the most powerful of all such known exposures is electrochemical anodic or cathodic treatment.
Flow-through electrochemical modular reactorе (FEM-7 element)
Flow-through electrochemical modular reactor (FEM-7 module) - is meant for ion-selective electrolysis with diaphragm, and can be used in the range of electrolyte solution concentrations between 0.2-0.3 and 2-3 mol/l and higher. FEM-7 modules can be used in electrochemical systems for various applications both as an individual device (FEM-7 reactor), and as an assembly of FEM-7 modules connected hydraulically in parallel - RPE-07 reactor. A distinctive feature of FEM-7 module is the inner electrode (anode) chamber, which can operate under pressure of up to 2 kgf/cm2 , at a very low rate of filtration liquid transfer through the diaphragm, and in which there are conditions for intensive internal electrolyte circulation, as well as for its heat exchange with electrolyte in the cathodic chamber. The only one manufacturer in the world of FEM-7 modules is the Russian enterprise ООО “Laboratory of Electrotechnology” founded by the patent authors V.M. Bakhir and Yu.G. Zadorozhny. They are made in various modifications securing the most optimal parameters of electrochemical exposure in relation to different technological processes and electrochemical systems. The main differences between FEM-7 module modifications are the type of anodic electrode coating of the central electrode, and ceramic diaphragm properties.
Technical electrochemical system
Technical electrochemical system – a set of properly, to a limited extent, interacting first and second class conductors and various auxiliary engineering systems, possessing stable parameters of converting electric energy into chemical one (or vice versa) within the specified range of external and internal conditions, which is used for producing technical or technical and economic effect.
Electrochemical system – at least two conductors with electron (electrode) and ion (electrolyte) conductivity which are in contact.
“Live” and ”dead” water
"Live" and "dead" water – as applied to electrochemical activation, “live” water is catholyte, that is, water electrochemically treated near cathode. It demonstrates elevated electron activity and has markedly pronounced reductant properties. Catholyte, being electron-donor medium, possesses negative redox potential values characteristic of biologic tissues, therefore application of catholyte to heal wounds, burns, inflammation, and in tissue regeneration enhances the above processes. If a bio-organism cell is placed into a medium with similar redox potential, the cell does not need to spend energy on leveling the potential between inner milieu and outer environment, thus directing all its vigor to recovery processes. “Dead” water is anolyte – water subjected to anode electrochemical exposure and consequently demonstrating decreased electron activity. Anolyte has well-marked oxidant features. Anolyte's active components are represented by compounds similar to compounds generated by macro-organisms in the process of phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
Flow-through electrochemical modular reactorе (FEM-3 element)
Flow-through electrochemical modular reactor (FEM-3 module) – is meant for electrochemical unipolar treatment of fresh or low-mineralized water with the purpose of determined changing of its chemical composition by the synthesis of stable and meta-stable products of anodic or cathodic electrochemical reactions, directed alteration of dissolved gases' composition, catalytic activity in different physical and chemical reactions, primarily sensitive to oxidation-reduction and acid-base medium properties. FEM-3 flow-through diaphragm modular electrochemical cells can be used both as independent electrochemical devices (FEM-3 reactor), and as units of higher capacity called RPE-03 reactors. In RPE-03 reactors, FEM-3 modules can be hydraulically connected in parallel or consecutively. There is an option of mixed hydraulic connection of FEM-3 modules in one reactor, namely, consecutive-parallel.
Similarly, FEM-3 modules in an RPE-03 reactor can be electrically connected. Electric connection in parallel of FEM-3 modules actually makes the reactor a mono-polar electrolyzer, which can be used for electrochemical treatment of solutions with very low electric conductivity. Electrically consecutive connection of FEM-3 modules in an RPE-03 reactor converts it into a bio-polar electrolyzer having no analogues in the world, since it consists of individual separate cells – FEM-3 modules. Such connection layout is advisable for electrochemical treatment of solutions or water with mineralization level over 3-4 g/l.
The main distinctive feature of FEM modules is the combination in one device of properties of ideal longitudinal displacement reactor and ideal transverse mixing reactor as well as possibility of operation under diaphragm differential pressure up to 1.5 kgf/cm 2 at a very low rate of filtration transfer. This permits in conditions of minimal electric power consumption to achieve maximum possible degree of water (solution) meta-stability, which is determined by the difference of values of any physical or chemical parameter at the beginning or at the end of relaxation period.
Another distinctive feature of FEM-3 modules is their high performance indicators in the process of operation with desalinated and fresh water, as well as with low-mineralized solutions (up to 0.1 mol/l).
The only one manufacturer in the world of FEM-3 modules is the Russian enterprise ООО “Laboratory of Electrotechnology” founded by the patent authors V.M. Bakhir and Yu.G. Zadorozhny. They are made in various modifications securing the most optimal parameters of electrochemical exposure in relation to different technological processes and electrochemical systems. The main differences between FEM-3 module modifications are the type of anodic electrode coating of the central electrode, and ceramic diaphragm properties.
Auxiliary electrolyte solution
Auxiliary electrolyte solution – fresh water or aqueous electrolyte solution, which is not mechanically mixed with initial solution in the process of its electrochemical transformations, but plays the role of second class conductor closing the electric circuit of electrochemical reactor in the process of initial solution unipolar electrochemical treatment, and, as required, is donor or acceptor of ions (cations or anions) in relation to the initial solutions.
Physiologically functional water
Physiologically functional water – drinking water purified in EMERALD devices which possesses physiologically functional properties, that is, is able to positively affect health status when it is consumed as part of daily ration.
The basis for organism's life activity is balance of oxidative and reductant biochemical processes. Water is responsible for the course of these processes as the main vehicle chemically, and as a principal structural component of the body biologically. Intensity of oxidation-reduction reactions depends on electron activity in aqueous solutions, which is characterized by oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value. The higher the parameter, the more “acid” the medium, the more it is capable of oxidating molecules including molecules of substances foreign for the body. And vice versa: the lower ORP value, the higher its reducing, anti-oxidant, ability. As a result of electrochemical exposure of water near cathode, its oxidation-reduction potential decreases, and it acquires anti-oxidant characteristics. In the process of anodic electrochemical treatment, ORP potential rises, and in its chemical composition water becomes similar to medium created by phagocytes while destroying harmful and foreign substances in the body.
In healthy individuals, the ORP of the body inner milieu is always below zero and varies between -200 and -300 millivolts. The ORP of any water including industrially purified drinking water is always above zero and ranges on average within the limits from +200 to +450 millivolts. When common drinking water penetrates into the tissues of human (or other) organism, it decreases electron activity in cells and tissues, which are 80-90% water. Due to that, organism's biologic structures (cellular membranes, cell organoids, nucleic acids and others) are subjected to oxidative destruction. In this way the body wears out, ages, its vitally important organs gradually lose their functions. If the ORP of water entering the body is close to the ORP of the inner milieu of the human body, then electric energy of cell membranes (body vital energy) is not spent on correcting water electron activity, and water is immediately assimilated since it is biologically compatible as regards that parameter. If the ORP of drinking water is more negative than that of the inner milieu of the body it supplies the latter with the energy used by the cells as the energy reserve of the body anti-oxidant protection against unfavorable environmental effects (that is why catholyte is called “live” water).
Electrochemical reactors – devices for electrochemical exposure of water and aqueous electrolyte solutions. For electrochemical conversion of water and dissolved substances it contains, flow-through diaphragm modular electrochemical reactors – FEM modules – are used, which can be employed as independent electrochemical devices, as well as in the form of higher capacity units called RPE reactors.
The main distinctive features of FEM modules are the combination in one cell of ideal displacement reactor and ideal mixing reactor properties, diaphragm's resistance to various kinds of dirtying, possibility of operation under considerable diaphragm differential pressure, as well as possibility of efficient control over the process of electrochemical treatment of water and electrolyte solutions by regulating, on a large scale, artificially induced ion-selective conductivity of ceramic oxide-zirconium diaphragm. Another distinctive feature of FEM modules is their high performance indicators during operation both with fresh water or low-mineralized solutions, and with concentrated electrolyte solutions.
Special resistance of engineering materials, optimal design and modular configuration make it possible to use FEM modules not only for electrochemical water activation but also for commercial production of hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and alkali. When working with concentrated saline solutions, FEM modules' advantage over industrial diaphragm or membrane electrolyzers is their capability of providing a final consumer with necessary products (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrochloric acid, caustic soda, sodium hypochlorite, potassium hypochlorite, hypochlorous acid) synthesized on-site in required amounts in compact-size economical devices, with comparatively modest requirements to the purity of source solutions and minimal labor, time and material inputs.
Catholyte and Anolyte
Catholyte and anolyte – water or water electrolyte solution during or after electrochemical treatment respectively near cathode or anode of an engineering electrochemical system with separated electrode spaces. Catholyte and anolyte can be activated (during relaxation) and non-activated (after relaxation process is over).
Electrochemically activated catholyte
Electrochemically activated catholyte – fresh or low-mineralized water, in which due to unipolar electrochemical exposure (near the cathode of electrochemical system) there have been formed and are present meta-stable products of cathode electrochemical reactions, in particular, molecular ions НО2- , О2- , ОН- . Electrochemically activated catholyte features electron-donor ability, that is, it is a strong reductant and /or reduction catalyst in various physico-chemical reactions including biochemical ones.
Initial solution – fresh water or aqueous electrolyte solution, which is fed into the electrochemical reactor of an engineering electrochemical system and which due to electrochemical transformations converts into end product of electrochemical technological process.
Ion-selective electrolysis with diaphragm
Ion-selective electrolysis with diaphragm – a new process in the technology of electrochemical production, which is fundamentally different from routinely-used electrolysis processes with separated anodic and cathodic spaces, such as electrolysis with submerged or filtering diaphragms, or electrolysis with an ion-exchange membrane.
The main distinctive feature of the given process is that ion transfer selectivity in the course of electrolyte aqueous solution electrolysis is achieved thanks to micro-filtration ceramic diaphragm made of zirconium, aluminum and yttrium oxides, which is placed between the electrodes of an electrochemical system, due to creation in the volume of diaphragm porous space of current density and pressure gradients controlling the rate and movement direction of water and charged particles (ions) it contains in the diaphragm pores.
Technology of ion-selective electrolysis with diaphragm secures electrochemical decomposition of concentrated electrolyte solution followed by obtaining of the end products with no intermediate conditioning of anolyte and catholyte, continuously, in electrochemical reactor with inert micro-porous diaphragm. Technology of ion-selective electrolysis (ISED) has been developed as an alternative to well-known technological processes of chlorine synthesis: mercury cathode electrolysis, diaphragm electrolysis and ion-selective membrane electrolysis.
ISED technology was first designed for highly-effective and ecologically safe synthesis of mixed gaseous products – chlorine (95%), chlorine dioxide(3%), ozone (2%) as well as sodium hydroxide solution (150-170 g/l) from sodium chloride solution (200-250 g/l) and is implemented in AQUACHLOR range devices, whose main product is acid (with рН 2.5-3.5) solution of the above oxidants in water of 0.5-2.0 g/l concentration (analog of chlorine water produced in water treatment plant chlorinators, when gaseous chlorine is introduced into water) and sodium hydroxide solution of 150-170 g/l concentration.
Electrochemical activation – a technology of producing substances in a meta-stable state mainly from water and compounds dissolved in it, by way of electrochemical exposure, with subsequent use of the resulting meta-stable substances in various technological processes instead of routinely used chemical As a chemical and physical process, electrochemical activation is a combination of performed in conditions of minimal heat evolution electrochemical and electrophysical exposure of water containing ions and molecules of dissolved substances in the area of spatial charge close to the electrode surface (either anode or cathode) of engineering electrochemical system, in conditions of non-equilibrium charge transfer through the "electrode-electrolyte" interface by electrons.
As a result of electrochemical activation, water is converted into a meta-stable (activated) state demonstrating at the same time elevated reactivity in various physical and chemical processes. Water activated near cathode (catholyte) possesses increased electron activity and has well-pronounced reductant properties. Accordingly, water activated near anode (anolyte) is characterized by inhibited electron activity and demonstrates oxidant properties.
Electrochemical activation permits to purposefully modify the composition of dissolved gases, acid-base and oxidative-reductant properties of water within wider limits than under equivalent (in conformity with electrolysis laws) chemical regulation, to synthesize from water and substances dissolved in it chemical reagents (oxidants and reductants) in a meta-stable state. The effects of water meta-stability due to electrochemical non-chemical control of its physical and chemical properties serve as the basis for technological processes of its conditioning, purification and decontamination as well as technologies of converting water or diluted electrolyte solutions into ecologically safe antimicrobial, washing, extracting and other functionally useful solutions synthesized on-site in specially designed electrochemical devices.
Electrochemically activated solution
Electrochemically activated solution – fresh or low-mineralized water, in which due to electrochemical unipolar (near cathode or anode of electrochemical system) exposure there have been formed and are present meta-stable products of electrochemical reactions, and physico-chemical parameters of which, in particular, ORP, relax in time.
Electrochemically activated solutions are obtained either from fresh (drinking) water, whose mineralization does not exceed 1.0 g/l, or from fresh water with added sodium chloride in the quantity which maintains general initial solution mineralization at the level of 5 g/l.
Also, electrochemically activated solutions can be prepared from distilled or purified for dialysis water by adding chemically pure sodium chloride or other electrolytes.
Electrochemically activated anolyte
Electrochemically activated anolyte – fresh or low-mineralized water, in which due to electrochemical unipolar exposure (near the anode of electrochemical system) there have been formed and are present meta-stable products of anodic electrochemical reactions normally represented by hydroperoxide compounds and oxygen chlorine compounds. Electrochemically activated anolyte features electron-acceptor ability, that is, it is a strong oxidant and/or oxidation catalyst in various physico-chemical reactions including biochemical ones.
Relaxation – a gradual transition of physical-chemical properties (parameters) of electrochemically activated water or solution from a meta-stable state after electrochemical activation into a state of thermo-dynamic equilibrium. Relaxation rate depends on time during which an estimated characteristic (рН , ORP, electric conductivity, surface tension, catalytic activity, solvent ability etc.) changes by е times as compared to initial (immediately after electrochemical and electrophysical exposure) value.
Electrochemically activated solutions produced in STEL device
Electrochemically activated acid anolyte
Electrochemically activated acid anolyte with рН below 5.0; symbolic notation: A anolyte. It is produced in STEL- АК -type devices by anodic treatment of initial aqueous sodium chloride solution in the anodic chamber of FEM-3 module in the process of transfer of a portion of the main current through the diaphragm by oncoming movement of chlorine and sodium ions. In practice, initial solution is the solution of sodium chloride in drinking water at concentration not exceeding 0.5 g/l, or fresh drinking water with no additives. In the process of synthesis, diaphragm differential pressure can vary from 0 to 0.2 atm.
Electrochemically activated neutral anolyte with pH from 6,0 to 7,5 (Anolyte AN)
Electrochemically activated neutral anolyte with pH from 6.0 to 7.5; symbolic notation: AN anolyte. It is produced in STEL- А N-type devices by anodic treatment of sodium chloride initial solution of 0.5-5.0 g/l concentration in the process of transfer of a portion of the main current through the diaphragm by hydroxyl ions in the direction from cathode to anode. The pressure in the anodic chamber during synthesis is higher than that in the cathodic one by 0.2-0.6 atm.
Electrochemically activated alkaline catholyte
Electrochemically activated alkaline catholyte with рН over 9.0; symbolic notation: К catholyte. It is produced in STEL- АК devices by cathodic treatment of initial sodium chloride solution of 0.1-0.5 g/l concentration, or common fresh water with no additives, via transporting the main current portion through the diaphragm by oncoming movement of sodium and chlorine ions. In the process of synthesis, differential pressure on the diaphragm may vary from 0 to 0.2 kgf/cm2. Асtive components of catholyte K are represented by sodium hydroxides as well as by metastable aquacomplexes of hydroxil anion (ОН-), peroxide anion (НО2-), hydroperoxide anion (НО2-), molecular oxygen ion-radical (О2-), oxygen anion (О2-), peroxide anion (О22-), and metastable aquacomplexes of hydrogen superoxide (НО2), free hydrogen radical (Н.) and free peroxide radical (НО2.).
Electrochemically activated anolyte neutral with pH from 6,5 to 7,8 (Anolyte ANK)
Electrochemically activated neutral anolyte with рН from 6.5 to 7.8; symbolic notation: ANK anolyte. It is produced in STEL-ANK-type devices by cathodic treatment of initial sodium chloride solution with 0.5-5.0 g/l concentration in the process of transfer of a portion of the main current by oncoming movement of sodium and chlorine ions, by subsequent separation of part of obtained alkaline catholyte and gaseous hydrogen and final anodic treatment of catholyte with dissolved hydrogen in the process of transport of the main current share by oncoming movement of sodium and chlorine ions. The pressures in the anodic and cathodic chambers during the process are equal or slightly different (by no more than 0.2 kgf/cm2). This method of anolyte production is the simplest and requires no special systems in STEL devices for protection from gaseous oxidant mixture liberation during transitional periods of the device operation (starting, break, switching to another regime), which allows to use STEL-ANK devices in the absence of ventilation, or in poorly ventilated premises in medical facilities. However, it is the comfortable conditions of ANK anolyte synthesis that cause the principal drawback of the given technology, that is, too rapid deterioration of FEM-3 module anodic coating working in alkaline catholyte.
Parameters of electrochemically activated solutions
The following parameters are essential for determining physical-chemical and functional properties of electrochemically activated anolyte and catholyte:
- Sodium chloride concentration in source solution, g/l.
- General mineralization of source solution, g/l.
- Hydrogen index ( рН ).
- Oxidation-reduction potential measured with the help of a platinum electrode as compared to chlorine-silver reference electrode, mV.
- Oxidant content, mg/l (only for electrochemically activated anolyte).
Non-contact electrochemical activation
Non-contact electrochemical activation – is based on previously unknown phenomenon of directed alteration of physical and chemical properties of liquids (water, electrolyte aqueous solutions) separated from electrochemically activated water and solution by a di-electric thin impermeable for liquids partition (glass, teflon, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene-tere-phthalate and others).
The efficacy of non-contact regulation of water and solution parameters is determined by a number of factors including the most essential ones, such as the degree of activating solution or water meta-stability, the material and structure of di-electric partition between activating and activated liquids. Today, new devices for non-contact electrochemical exposure of INFUSTAT range are being developed, whose main function will be non-contact regulation of рН and redox potential of medical fluids during drop infusion into the human body. The main spheres of application are oncology, liver diseases and immuno-deficiency. Output: from 0.3 to 1.5 l/h.
Electrochemically activated anolyte ANK with high specific oxidants content
Electrochemically activated ANK anolyte with high specific oxidant content and рН from 6.5 to 7.5; symbolic notation: ANK anolyte with high specific content of oxidants. It is produced in STEL-ANK-PRO devices by anodic treatment of initial sodium chloride solution of 0.8-1.5 g/l concentration, at pressure from 0.8 to 1.4 kgf/cm2 in the anodic chamber and 0.1-0.2 kgf/cm2 in the cathodic chamber of FEM-3 module followed by mixing with catholyte saturated with hydrogen and released in flotation reactor from insoluble heavy metal hydroxides. The given technology guarantees long-term continuous operation of engineering systems fitted with RPE-03 reactor made up of FEM-3 modules during 50,000 hours and longer.
STEL – electrochemical devices for producing electrochemically activated solutions – anolyte and catholyte from initial solution represented by fresh or low-mineralized water containing less than 5.0 g/l chlorides. STEL devices are fitted with a flow-through electrochemical diaphragm reactor represented either by one FEM flow-through electrochemical modular cell, or a combination of such cells (RPE reactor), a hydraulic system for feeding initial solution into the reactor and discharging electrochemical synthesis products from the reactor, as well as a power supply. Besides, depending on the model and manufacturing modification, STEL devices can be supplied with appliances for preparing concentrated sodium chloride solution for subsequent mixing with fresh water and obtaining initial solution, systems of automatic control of electrochemically activated solution parameters and the device operation parameters, automated system for periodic rinsing of the device with acid solution, a system to control storage capacity filling and a number of other gadgets and appliances characterizing the degree of STEL device engineering sophistication. STEL devices are mostly used for producing ecologically safe washing, disinfectant and sterilizing solutions for health care facilities, food industry, agricultural facilities and utility services.
AQUACHLOR – devices for production from initial sodium chloride solution of 200 to 250 g/l concentration of aqueous solution of oxidants represented mostly by chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone. The oxidant solution is meant to be used in drinking water decontamination for large consumers: water treatment plants, water supply intakes, sewage treatment plants, large swimming pools. AQUACHLOR devices are fitted with RPE electrochemical reactors made up of FEM-7 flow-through modular cells. The degree of utilizing sodium chloride contained in the initial solution by AQUACHLOR devices is 98-99 %.
AQUADEZ – devices for decontamination of water in field conditions (army, emergency situations, expeditions into hard-to-reach areas). AQUADEZ devices employ electrochemical technologies of water decontamination using auxiliary electrolyte in the cathodic chamber, which permits to achieve maximum (up to 20 liters per hour through a single FEM-3 module) capacity while decontaminating fresh water from surface water sources, including stagnant marsh water, with minimal power consumption and in most unfavorable conditions. AQUADEZ devices with reactors consisting of one to 12 FEM-3 modules have been developed, whose decontaminated water output varies from 10 to 250 liters per hour, at 40-500 W power.
STEL-ANK-PRO – electrochemical devices for producing electrochemically activated neutral anolyte ANK with high specific oxidants content. STEL-ANK-PRO devices have a high anolyte output and permit to realize most efficiently processes associated with application of neutral anolyte in industrial conditions, i. е ., they are capable of continuous long-term operation with short breaks (not exceeding 30 minutes in 24 hours) for cleaning electrochemical reactors. Major distinction of STEL-ANK-PRO devices from STEL-type devices is their using ISED technology to produce neutral anolyte. In AQUATRON devices, prior to its contact with humid gaseous mixture of oxidants, water is saturated with hydrogen and simultaneously its рН value shifts from 7 to 11 because of its being mixed with catholyte. This is followed by removal of formed insoluble heavy metal hydroxides, excessive quantities of catholyte and hydrogen in flotation reactor.
Future development of ISED technology allow to widen a field of application and propose to practice economic, effective, highly productive and safe technological processes of pure gas synthesis: ozone, hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine dioxide, as well as concentrated solutions of sulphuric, hydrochloric and nitric acid, concentrated solutions of sodium and potassium hydroxides.
ECOCHLOR – commercial modular devices for synthesis of gaseous chlorine and concentrated (150-170 g/l) sodium hydroxide solution. Gaseous chlorine output of one module of ECOCHLOR device is 2.0 kg/h, dry sodium chloride consumption being 3.4-3.5 kg/h and consumed electric power being 4.0-5.0 kW. The efficiency of using the area occupied by chlorine production equipment is evaluated by the quantity of chlorine made by the equipment installed in the area during 24 hours. For ECOCHLOR devices this parameter is 180 kg of chlorine per 24 hours for one square meter of the area.
BAZEX – devices for improving bio-compatibility of hemodialysis solutions by non-chemical regulation of рН and redox potential values of water purified for hemodialysis. BAZEX devices make it possible to bring arterial pressure to normal in hemodialysis center patients, to rule out dermatoses and make hemodialysis procedure more convenient.
RENOFILTER – devices for cleansing and sterilization of artificial kidney dialyzers with the purpose of their repeated use. Unlike REDOX devices, RENOFILTER devices use ANK-type anolyte as a washing and sterilizing agent produced from initial sodium chloride solution of no higher than 2.5 g/l concentration. The cycle of dialyzer treatment in REDOX devices is completely automated and takes 13 minutes.
ECOSTEL – electrochemical devices for generation of electrochemically activated solutions – anolyte and catholyte, general mineralization of which does not exceed 1.5 g/l. ECOSTEL is meant for use in food industry, medical establishments, public catering establishments. ECOSTEL is manufactured in various modifications satisfying particularized requirements. Depending on type the ECOSTEL devices are presented under the name of STEL-ECO-S and SUPERSTEL. Distinguishing feature of all ECOSTEL modifications is high degree of salt conversion that lies in the range of 90 to 98%. ECOSTEL generates anolyte of A, AN and ANK types with oxidants content of up to 600 mg/l and catholyte of K type with pH of more than 12 with productivity of 50 to 500 l/h of every solution. Further ISED technology development permits to widen its application scope and offer for practical use cost-effective, highly-efficient and safe technological processes of synthesis of pure gases: ozone, hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine dioxide, as well as concentrated solutions of sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric acids, and concentrated solutions of sodium and potassium hydroxides.
EMERALD – electrochemical devices to remove from fresh water all species and forms of microorganisms, heavy metal ions and harmful organic compounds. A source solution for these devices is fresh water proper. Mineralization of purified water is only slightly different from that of initial water since the contribution of heavy metal ions into the general specific electric conductivity of water is negligible. The technology of purification consists in a definite order of stages of water treatment in active and passive elements (reactors). The active elements of water purification flow chart are RPE flow-through electrochemical modular reactors made up of combined or single FEM-3 modules, in which purposeful non-equilibrium alteration of water physical and chemical parameters and properties occur, that is, its inner energy rises. This is accompanied by electrochemical transformation of inorganic salts dissolved in water not exceeding 10 % of their total content. The passive elements are catalytic, flotation, electrokinetic reactors and those for micro-electrophysical water conditioning. In these passive elements excessive internal water energy is selectively used for purification processes. Depending on water characteristics and the nature of impurities various purification methods are employed, which differ by the sequence of water treatment stages, their type, quantity and intensity.
OXYMED – devices for producing antimicrobial solution with high specific content of oxidants – ANK anolyte. OXYMED devices produce ANK anolyte on a large scale (from 200 to 1000 liters per hour for one device). OXYMED devices endure continuous long-term operation with short breaks (not exceeding 30 minutes in 24 hours) for cleaning electrochemical reactors. A fundamental distinction of OXYMED–range devices from AQUATRON- and STEL-type devices is combination in one device of RPE-03 reactors made up of FEM-3 modules and RPE-07 reactors made up of FEM-7 modules. RPE-03 reactors are meant for electrochemical treatment of water with the purpose of altering its structure and securing the best possible conditions of dissolving and stabilizing gaseous phase in the process of introduction of humid gaseous mixture of oxidants produced by the RPE-07 reactor from sodium chloride solution of 50-150 g/l concentration.
ALLIGATOR – devices for decontamination and conditioning of swimming pool water. ALLIGATOR devices are based on technologies very similar to the technologies of antimicrobial solution synthesis in STEL devices, which lie in decontamination of swimming pool water using no chemicals. Synthesis of antimicrobial components in ALLIGATOR devices is carried out directly from swimming pool water with no source reagents, for instance common salt, added.
OXYTRON – devices meant for production of sodium hypochlorite solution of 10 to 50 g/l concentration. OXYTRON devices are also based on the ISED technology. Common salt consumption in OXYTRON devices is 1.7- 1.8 kg per 1 kg of active chlorine, power consumption varying between 2.0-2.5 kW/h per 1 kg of active chlorine.
REDOX – devices for cleansing and sterilization of artificial kidney dialyzers with the purpose of their repeated use. Electrochemical reactor of REDOX devices is applied according to the diagram of producing acid anolyte and alkaline catholyte from initial sodium chloride solution with mineralization from 2 to 3 g/l. Protein impurities are removed from the depth of the porous space of dialyzer membranes thanks to electro-osmotic transfer occurring due to the difference of redox potentials of anolyte and catholyte separated by dialyzer membrane in the process of purification. The first REDOX device was manufactured in 1988; in 1989-1992 improved REDOX device modifications were used in several Russian hemodialysis centers. With their help, during that time over 300,000 artificial kidney dialyzers were washed clean. The cycle of dialyzer treatment in REDOX devices is completely automated and its final stage envisages the checking of the intactness of dialyzer membranes. The cycle's duration is 18 minutes.
AQUATRON – devices to produce activated neutral anolyte of А N type with high specific content of oxidants. AQUATRON devices have a high anolyte output and permit to realize most efficiently processes associated with application of neutral anolyte in industrial conditions, i. е ., they are capable of continuous long-term operation with short breaks (not exceeding 30 minutes in 24 hours) for cleaning electrochemical reactors. Major distinction of AQUATRON-range devices from STEL-type devices is their using ISED technology to produce neutral anolyte. In AQUATRON devices, prior to its contact with humid gaseous mixture of oxidants, water is saturated with hydrogen and simultaneously its рН value shifts from 7 to 11 because of its being mixed with catholyte. This is followed by removal of formed insoluble heavy metal hydroxides, excessive quantities of catholyte and hydrogen in flotation reactor.
ENDOSTERIL – devices for disinfection, pre-sterilization treatment and sterilization of endoscopes using electrochemically activated ANK neutral anolyte. The cycle of endoscope treatment is completely automated; the treatment time is 15 minutes. In 1998, ОАО NPO KHIMAVTOMATIKA together with ОАО NPO EKRAN manufactured and put into operation 300 sets of ENDOSTERIL devices in the hospitals of the Russian Federation.